The energy bust, for instance, pushed Houston down 42 places, to No. 68 this year. Fargo, N.D., a shale-oil hub that exploded in growth in recent years, fell from first among small cities last year to 15th in 2016.
Other parts of the Midwest haven’t been as lucky as some of the auto cities. The strengthening dollar has hurt exports this year, and that, in turn, has hurt cities dependent on foreign markets, such as Indianapolis, Lexington, Ky., and Little Rock, Ark.